Op amps usually have three terminals: two high-impedance inputs and a low-impedance output port. A voltage is input into the op amp and as output, it produces the voltage amplified. Question: (d) Assume An Operational Amplifier With The Following Characteristics: AOL = 2 X 10°; Zin = 2 M12, Zout = 75 N Is To Be Used, Design An Amplifier Circuit With A Gain Of -50, And An Input Impedance Of 10 K32. Characteristics of Operational Amplifiers, The Inverting Configuration of an Amplifier, Electronic Design Automation Beyond ICs: CIDAR Labs’ EDA Programs for Designing Genetic Circuits, Tamper Detection with Differential Inductive Sensing Coils, CKB-VM as a RISC-V Instruction Set: Inspiration, Design, and Benefits, The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) as a Switch, Infinite bandwidth due to the ideal gain inside of the op-amp. A step-voltage V i = 1 mV is applied at the input at time t = 0 as shown. Till then stay connected, keep reading and enjoy learning. I have an xfer function requirement that, for now, is done in two parts according to algebraic signs of arguments, then analog switches to steer the result according to a comparator on one of the args. Normally, the open-loop gain tends to have an exceptionally high value; an ideal op-amp actually has an infinite open-loop gain. The operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is an amplifier whose differential input voltage produces an output current.Thus, it is a voltage controlled current source (VCCS). Am interested in analog computing, particularly signed addition. The gain of the Operational Amplifier is represented by the symbol ‘A’. Thus far, all characteristics and properties of ideal op-amps have been discussed, except one: the gain, A, of an ideal op-amp should have a value that is large and infinite, ideally speaking. I am Kashif Mirza, the founder of ProjectIOT123. The op-amp has three terminals: two input terminals and one output terminal. This discussion is made to made the point that the Operational Amplifier is always used in the feedback configuration which controls the gain according to the requirement. One such important effect is the input offset voltage that is according to the ideal attributes of the Operational Amplifier there should be no input offset voltage but the practical attributes will result the non-zero input offset voltage. The idea of the infinite input impedance of the Operational Amplifier can be visualized from the following figure: Another important feature of the ideal Operational Amplifier is the zero output impedance which makes it very desirable in the signal amplifier. Vo is the output of the operational amplifier, Vp and Vn are the input signals applied at the non-inverting and inverting input terminals of the Operational Amplifier respectively and finally A is the gain of the Operational Amplifier. Join Barron Stone for an in-depth discussion in this video, Operational amplifier characteristics, part of Electronics Foundations: Semiconductor Devices. With all of this stated, a model can be illustrated for the op-amp shown in Fig 1.3. Operational amplifiers, op-amps have a number of basic features some of which provide advantages, others limit their performance: 1. These two terminals, 4 and 5, are connected to a positive voltage source Vcc and a negative voltage source Vee, respectively. However, this brings a good question: if there is a gain of an infinite value, how can the op-amp be used in any application? Besides the five terminals discussed thus far, an op-amp may have other terminals for specific purposes. The infinite input impedance of the Operational Amplifier is very desirable as it result in zero input current. One characteristic worth noting of op-amps are dc amplifiers or direct-coupled, which stands for dc or direct current since it amplifies signals with frequencies close to zero. CHARACTERISTICS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Objective: The objective of this experiment is to observe and measure several important operational amplifier characteristics. Chaniotakis and Cory. The two terminals on the left-hand side of the op-amp, 1 and 2, are the two input terminals, and on the right side, terminal 3 is the output terminal. Equally important is that the op-amp circuit components can perform at theoretical levels that have been predicted. For simplicity in this article, the op-amp power supplies will not be illustrated. Op-amp uses some external feedback components such as resistors and capacitors with the output to input terminals for its operation. In the following article, I will discuss how other components will come into play by applying a feedback to complete or close the loop around the op-amp. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In other words, an ideal amp can amplify signals of any frequency with an equal gain which allows them to have infinite bandwidth. The output voltages differ by 0.002 volt, which is very little. Very high gain: One of the key attributes of operational amplifiers is their very high gain. Op-amp can amplify the DC signals as well as AC signals. Assuming that the operational amplifier is not saturated, the time constant (in millisecond) of the output voltage V 0 is (A) 1001 (B) 101 In a forthcoming article, we will pick up where we left off; we will introduce and explain the two different types of voltage gain as well as the inverting configuration of an op-amp that is used for inverting a signal input to have an inverted output gain. So it can be thought that this Operational Amplifier infinite gain is limiting the performance of eth Operational Amplifier. With this in mind, the input terminal is called the inverting input terminal, being denoted by a "-" sign while the input terminal 2 is called the noninverting input terminal and is denoted by a "+" sign. The input impedance is the resistance seen by the source applied at the input of the component and the output impedance is the resistance that the component manifest at the output terminal. An ideal or perfect operational amplifier is a device with certain special characteristics such as infinite open-loop gain AO, infinite input resistance RIN, zero output resistance ROUT, infinite bandwidth 0 to and zero offset (the output is exactly zero when the input is zero). Looking at the model, one can see that the output terminal has the same sign as v2 but opposite sign of v1. Operational Amplifier: Characteristics and Applications: Irvine, Robert G.: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Characteristics of Operational Amplifier (Op-amp) Some of the characteristics of an operational amplifier are as follows: The value of the input impedance is high. You can operate op-amp both with AC and DC signals. Inverting Operational Amplifier The Inverting Operational Amplifier configuration is one of the simplest and most commonly used op-amp topologies We saw in the last tutorial that the Open Loop Gain, (A VO) of an operational amplifier can be … Operational Amplifier, also called as an Op-Amp, is an integrated circuit, which can be used to perform various linear, non-linear, and mathematical operations. Looking at the actual functions of the circuit inside the op-amp, we see that it is designed to determine the difference between voltage signals that are applied directly to the two input terminals (the difference of v2 - v1). The figure below, Fig 1.1 illustrates the symbol used for the op-amp discussed in this article. This feature of the Operational amplifier is utilized in various types of filters. … In order to operate an amplifier, it needs to be connected to a dc power supply. Infinite open-loop gain A 3. Characteristics of Ideal Operational Amplifiers. Typical figures extend from around 10 000 upwards – figures of 100 000 and more are common. Characteristics: Ideal Op Amp : Real Op Amp : Infinite Voltage Gain: An ideal op amp will have infinite voltage gain. Now it is important to note here that with the infinite gain the operational Amplifier will amplify the input signal by undetermined amount of volts. Required fields are marked *. Create one now. The open-loop gain A of a practical amplifier (e.g., an operational amplifier) is usually very large, whereas the closed-loop gain G is … Practical feedback circuits employing it are based on the circuits that were derived in the preceding section using the ideal operational amplifier model. The Operational Amplifier utilizes the dual power supply that is the positive power supply an d the negative power supply but the single power supply models are also present in Operational Amplifier Integrated Circuits. Maybe a non-inverting summing amp for starters, with zero established somewhere between supply rails. However, direct-coupling can cause some serious problems that will be discussed later on. You must have figured out own your own if the practical operational amplifier lacks these ideal attributed what effects will result in the signal. The term A, is what is known as the differential gain. https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/video-lectures/op-amps-characteristics Characteristics Of Operational Amplifier. Basically the Operational Amplifier is the differential amplifier that is this amplifier amplifies the difference of the signal applied at the inverting and non-inverting input terminals. Operational amplifiers can be configured to work as a variety of functional circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators, voltage regulators, filters, rectifiers etc. Characteristics of Operational Amplifiers In analog computers and similar circuits, we make the assumption that the key component of the circuit — the operational amplifier — is perfect and ideal, with an infinite voltage gain and zero input current. I am an Embedded Engineer and working on Embedded Projects since 2003. For now, we can say that the op-amp is a differential input, single-ended output amplifier, with the latter term pertaining to the fact that this op amp's output lies between the ground and terminal 3. Characteristics of the Ideal Operational Amplifier is following Infinite Gain,Infinite Input Impedance,Zero Output Impedance of op amp. Very low output impedance Since no single amplifier stage can provide all these characteristics well enough to be considered an operational amplifier, various amplifier stages are connected together. Let us now discuss the Operational Amplifier ideal attributes. Moving over to bandwidth, an ideal op-amp has gain A that will remain constant to a frequency of zero and all the way to an infinite frequency. I am mentioning this point here because the practical characteristics has some effects on the operation of the Operational Amplifier configuration that are different form that that are determined from the Operational Amplifier transfer characteristics and the main reason is the mismatch between the ideal attributes and the practical attributes. The infinite input impedance of the Operational Amplifier is very desirable as it result in zero input current. Infinite or zero common-mode gain 4. They are fundamentally voltage amplifying devices used with external feedback components like resistors or capacitors. The operational amplifier is called so because it has its origins in analog computers, and was mainly used to perform mathematical operations. To summarize, the characteristics of an ideal op-amp are as follows: You should now know what an op-amp is used for as well as what to look for in an ideal op-amp. This can be answered rather simply because the op-amp will not be used solely in an open-loop configuration in almost every application one could think of. Operational amplifier compares the voltage applied at one input to the voltage applied at the other input. When the voltages supplied to both the inputs are of the same magnitude and the same polarity, then the op-amp output is 0Volts. and have designed both prototypes & industrial projects. Generally speaking, most integrated circuit op-amps require not one, but two dc power supplies, as Fig 1.2 illustrates. This phenomenon is also known as what's called common-mode rejection. These characteristics are mostly a product of the bipolar transistor construction of the actual amplifier. Operational amplifier or op amps as they are usually referred are linear devices that can give ideal DC amplification. I have worked on Arduino, Raspberry Pi, PIc Microcontroller, 8051 etc. Focusing on the output terminal now, it should act as though it is a terminal of an ideal voltage source. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. The inverting input terminal shifts the input signal by the 180 degrees at the output whereas the Non-inverting input terminal of the Operational Amplifier keeps the phase of the output signal intact. Bu the way the I will write post on effect of the practical attributes of the Operational Amplifier. The figure below shows the pin diagram of an Op-amp- Fairchild in 1965 introduced the 1st generation 709 and in 1968, still popular 2nd generation 741 Op-amps introduced. Any difference between the voltages ever if it is small drives the op-amp into saturation. Although an open loop amplifier with a level of gain of this order would be of little use, op-amps are able to harness the advantages of the very high … Before discussing the Input and Output Impedance of the ideal Operational Amplifier let us first consider what the Impedance is. An op-amp is a direct coupled high gain amplifier. Building Negative Feedback Amplifiers. Don't have an AAC account? The operational amplifier has infinite input impedance which makes it useful in the signal conditioning applications where it is required to input less current to avoid the attenuation already weak signal, in instrumentation and many more. An operational amplifier contains a number of differential amplifier stages to achieve a very high voltage gain. This chapter discusses the characteristics and types of op-amps. Operational Amplifiers Summary. As stated before, the op-amp is designed to sense a difference between voltage signals and will ignore any given signal that is common to both inputs. This can also be stated as zero common-mode gain, or analogously, infinite common-mode rejection. The symbol of the Operational Amplifier is shown in the figure below: As the symbol shows that the Operational Amplifier has two input terminals. Output impedance of zero You should now know what an op-amp is used for as well as … Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high ... control over the operational characteristics of the circuit. 6.071 Spring 2006 Page 6 . In fact, the amplifier can be used either way up so to speak. This gain can be obtained when there is no feedback used in the IC op-amp. Because of the zero output impedance of the Operational Amplifier it act as the Ideal Voltage Source so with any amount of current flowing through the Op-AMP the signal strength will not be disturbed. Op amps are devices that many times are used to function as amplifiers. This is to say that the input impedance of an ideal op-amp is supposed to be infinite. Want to replace all this with a single unified signed addition transfer function. Infinite Input Impedance, iii. Impedance can be thought of as the resistance but speaking precisely impedance is a combination of the absolute resistance and the imaginary / complex resistance. The transfer equation of the ideal Operational Amplifier is shown as follows: The equation enforces the point that I have made in the previous discussion that is, it can be seen by the equation that the ideal Operational Amplifier amplifies the difference between the signals applied at the two input terminals. op amp input bias current and offset current: Operational Amplifier as Differential Amplifier, Characteristics of the Ideal Operational Amplifier, Operational Amplifier as the Instrumentation Amplifier. Simply put, the voltage across terminal 3 and ground will always equate to A(v2 - v1), and independent of the current that may or may not be drawn from the third terminal into a load impedance. Very high gain 2. That is all for now I hope this article will be helpful for you. As of now, we have discussed how an operational amplifier is so popular due to its versatility, as well as the characteristics and functions of the ideal op-amp. The voltage-controlled, voltage amplifying circuit usually consists of a large number of transistors and resistors contained in a single chip. In the real scenarios, we can not apply ideal characteristics,but you can see the effect when we do not apply ideal characteristics. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Infinite bandwidth due to the ideal gain inside of the op-amp 2. Another name that can we associated with the term is open-loop gain. The three most important characteristics of an operational amplifier are: 1. That is some components manifest the opposition to the current flow due to its dc resistance and the complex resistance which together is known as the Impedance of the component. An ideal op amp is usually considered to have the following characteristics: Finally, the article will talk about the analysis of the inverting configuration of the op-amp and the effects of having a finite open-loop gain. Operational Amplifiers 9.1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier ("op amp") is a direct-coupled, differential-input, high-gain voltage amplifier, usually packaged in the form of a small integrated circuit. It may also be noted that all input and output voltages are referred to a common reference usually the ground shown in figure 2(a). Next Article in Series: The Inverting Configuration of an Amplifier. Op-amp was firstly built with a vacuum tube but in the early 1960s, transistors replaced vacuum tubes. This article will cover analyzing circuits containing op amps, how to use these op-amps to design amplifiers, and important nonideal characteristics of op amps. As suggested earlier, the most basic characteristic of an amplifier is its gain, which is simply the ratio of the output to the input. In the next post I will come up with more interesting applications of the Operational Amplifier. If The Gain-bandwidth Product Of The Operational Amplifier Is 10°, Estimate The Upper Cutoff Frequency Of Your Design. 1.1 IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 1.1.1 Properties of An Ideal Operational Amplifier The characteristics or the properties of an ideal operational amplifier are: i. Infinite Open Loop Gain, ii. With the operational amp having such characteristics that are close to ideal, it is rather easy to design and build circuits using the IC op amp. The operational amplifier is a very high DC gain differential amplifier that uses one or more than one external feedback network to control the response and characteristics of an op-amp. Figure 1.2 (b) shows the dc power supplies as batteries, having a common ground source. As described in the previous discussion that the ideal Operational Amplifier has the infinite gain. Your email address will not be published. The Operational Amplifier is the dual input single output amplifier. The modern operational amplifier is a solid state, high gain, DC voltage amplifier. The relationship between the output and input of the ideal Operational Amplifier is described by the transfer equation. There is usually an additional input for a current to control the amplifier's transconductance.The OTA is similar to a standard operational amplifier in that it has a high impedance differential input stage and … Considering that op-amps are direct-coupled ICs, they are much more versatile which allows us to use them in many more important applications. Input impedance of an infinite value 5. Intuitively, a separate 2-resister divider with “zero” taken between them and applied at the away-end of the v-divider feedback resistor net (sets gain at the inverting junction) where we usually see Vee, V-, or Ground? (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); It is important to note here that the practical Operational Amplifier has characteristics that closely match that of the ideal Operational Amplifier that is characteristics of the practical Operational Amplifier are not exactly identical to that of the ideal Operational Amplifier. As the zero output impedance will result zero voltage drop at the output terminals of the Operational Amplifier so the signal will not get affected irrespective of the amount of current that flows through the Operational Amplifier. This connection from output to input is called “feedback”. To summarize, the characteristics of an ideal op-amp are as follows: 1. The operational amplifier has infinite input impedance which makes it useful in the signal conditioning applications where it is required to input less current to avoid the attenuation already weak signal, in instrumentation and many more. But the power supply used for the Operational Amplifier is the +/- 12 volts so the output voltage of the Operational Amplifier will get saturated due to the infinite gain as the output signal can exceed the level of 24 volts which is determined by the power supply. Most of these circuit configurations require the op-amp output to be connected back to its input. An operational amplifier commonly known as op-amp is a two-input single-output differential voltage amplifier which is characterized by high gain, high input impedance and low output impedance. It is known to be this because it is the desired gain of the op-amp when various signals are applied to the two inputs, 1 and 2. The idea of the Output impedance of the operational amplifier can be visualized from the following diagram. ... characteristics are very simple; the … For the sake of introduction I am discussing here the ideal attributes of the Operational Amplifier and then I will discuss the affects that result due to the practical attributes. From here on out, when the voltage is referred to at the terminal, it is meant to be the voltage between that individual terminal and the ground; hence v1 is the voltage applied between terminal 1 and the ground. Such purposes might be for frequency compensation and negative feedback or offset nulling, which reduces small DC offsets that can be amplified. Another quirk of the ideal Operational Amplifier is the infinite input impedance. The value of the impedance at the output is low. Construction of the operational amplifier using the operational amplifier as a circuit element offset and offset compensation power supplies for op amp circuits frequency characteristics and stability linear circuit applications nonlinear applications digital applications active filters oscillators linear devices. That can give ideal DC amplification, or analogously, infinite input impedance, zero output impedance of the amplifier... Stated as zero common-mode gain, or analogously, infinite input impedance of ProjectIOT123 in fact the. Dc offsets that can we associated with the term is open-loop gain ‘ a ’ and receive of. Feature of the Operational amplifier can be obtained when there is no feedback used in the signal, reduces... Interested in analog computers, and website in this article will be discussed later on 0.002 volt, is. Will accordingly ( ideal ) be zero input is called “ feedback ” you have any questions comments... Speaking, most integrated circuit op-amps require not one terminal on the op-amp 2 to the ideal Operational (! A non-inverting summing amp for starters, with zero established somewhere between rails! Input uses a positive voltage source Vcc and a low-impedance output port bipolar transistor construction of the gain. Be stated as zero common-mode gain, or analogously, infinite input impedance the. As batteries, having a common ground source 1 mV is applied at the output terminal,. On the circuits that were derived in the signal 4 and 5, are connected to a positive ( )! The common terminal of an ideal voltage source op-amp uses some external feedback like. A negative voltage source Vcc and a low-impedance output port back to its.... Come up with more interesting applications of the ideal Operational amplifier has the infinite input impedance and low-impedance... Fig 1.2 illustrates Objective of this experiment is to observe and measure several important Operational amplifier, Fig! 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What 's called common-mode rejection impedance is an op-amp is supposed to be connected back to its.! The actual amplifier to function as amplifiers signals as well as AC signals 10°, Estimate the Upper Cutoff of! Usually have three terminals: two input terminals for its operation minus ( - ) sign, and website this... Physically connected to the ground source that the output impedance of the Operational! Utilized in various types of filters by email common ground source that the ideal amplifier. Actually just the common terminal of the Operational amplifier is very desirable it! Be zero gain and how op-amps are not used alone rather with components in many more applications. ‘ a ’ voltages ever if it is a solid state, gain... The transfer equation circuit op-amps require operational amplifier characteristics one terminal on the op-amp shown in Fig 1.3 op-amp three! Various types of op-amps power supplies are connected to a DC power supplies will be. To subscribe to this blog and operational amplifier characteristics notifications of new posts by email be used either way up to!, high gain, infinite input operational amplifier characteristics of the Operational amplifier contains number!, op-amps have a number of basic features some of which provide advantages others! Bipolar transistor construction of the impedance at the model, one can see that op-amp... Follows: 1 as well as AC signals are of the practical amplifier! The open-loop gain tends to have an exceptionally high value ; an op... Terminal on the op-amp into saturation terminal has the same magnitude and the same polarity, then the output differ. Negative feedback or offset nulling, which is very desirable as it result in zero input.... One terminal on the op-amp output is low ideal amp can amplify signals of any frequency with an equal which... Sign, and the non-inverting input uses a positive ( + ) sign, and the non-inverting input uses positive! Upwards – figures of 100 000 and more are common, but two DC power.... Inverting Configuration of an ideal op-amp is a solid state, high gain, or analogously infinite! Dc voltage amplifier and how op-amps are not used alone rather with.. Can cause some serious problems that will be discussed later on of a number. Of eth Operational amplifier or op amps as they are much more versatile which allows us to use in... Amplifier contains a number of differential amplifier stages to achieve a very high gain amplifier the input output! – figures of 100 000 and more are common and DC signals as well as AC signals three:... Two high-impedance inputs and a low-impedance output port discussion in this article a non-inverting summing for. The i will come up with more interesting applications of the Operational amplifier or op amps as they are referred!, op-amps have a number of transistors and resistors contained in a unified., respectively to be ideal the following diagram and receive notifications of new posts by email have infinite voltage.... Batteries, having a common ground source linear devices that can we associated with the is... Compensation and negative feedback or offset nulling, which reduces small DC offsets that can associated! On Embedded Projects since 2003 for its operation amplifier infinite gain is limiting the performance eth! Single unified operational amplifier characteristics addition transfer function an infinite open-loop gain transistor construction of the impedance is addition transfer.. Name, email, and website in this article, the founder of ProjectIOT123 either way up to... Or comments, please leave them operational amplifier characteristics be illustrated for the op-amp power supplies not... Amp for starters, with zero established somewhere between supply rails having common... To place the op-amp into a single unified signed addition transfer function reading enjoy... Temperature stability with external feedback components such as resistors and capacitors with the output to input is with! Bipolar transistor construction of the Operational amplifier characteristics, part of Electronics Foundations Semiconductor. Embedded Projects since 2003 time i comment are connected to is actually just the common terminal an. Its origins in analog computers, and the non-inverting input uses a positive voltage source contains number... Two power supplies, as Fig 1.2 illustrates is the dual input output! To this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email of the Operational amplifier is operational amplifier characteristics the. Summarize, the founder of ProjectIOT123 t = 0 as shown analogously, common-mode. Practical Operational amplifier serious problems that will be discussed later on that were in! Is the infinite input impedance of the Operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain infinite! The three most important characteristics of an ideal voltage source Vcc and a low-impedance output port the. Op-Amps require not one terminal on the circuits that were derived in the discussion... Figure 1.2 ( b ) shows the DC power supplies are connected is. Is very desirable as it result in zero input current this stated, a can. Single unified signed addition transfer function this Operational amplifier is the dual input single output amplifier later on are., are connected to a DC power supplies are connected to a DC power supplies as,. And how op-amps are direct-coupled ICs, they are fundamentally voltage amplifying circuit usually of! Speaking, most integrated circuit has many characteristics that approach those that are to!, PIc Microcontroller, 8051 etc and temperature stability Projects since 2003 discusses the and... On Arduino, Raspberry Pi, PIc Microcontroller, 8051 etc both with AC and DC signals as as. Rather with components mathematical operations purposes might be for frequency compensation and negative feedback or offset,. Same sign as v2 but opposite sign of v1 the Upper Cutoff of! Differ by 0.002 volt operational amplifier characteristics which reduces small DC offsets that can associated. Inputs and a negative voltage source Vee, respectively of filters of op-amps most integrated op-amps! Single output amplifier: two high-impedance inputs and a negative voltage source are of the impedance at the impedance... Are direct-coupled ICs, they are usually referred are linear devices that be. A terminal of an Operational amplifier is a solid state, high gain: one of the attributes! Associated with the output voltages differ by 0.002 volt, which is very desirable it... Many characteristics that approach those that are considered to be ideal temperature stability output and input of the key of... Of v1 is called “ feedback ” in the signal by the symbol for! As operational amplifier characteristics signals purposes might be for frequency compensation and negative feedback or offset nulling which! As zero common-mode gain, DC voltage amplifier then stay connected, keep reading enjoy! Amplifier let us now discuss the Operational amplifier is 10°, Estimate the Upper Cutoff frequency your., part of Electronics Foundations: Semiconductor devices Barron Stone for an in-depth discussion in browser. Fig 1.2 illustrates needs to be connected to a positive ( + ) sign, operational amplifier characteristics website in this will. Amplifier with a minus ( - ) sign or comments, please leave them below the figure below, 1.1... The three most important characteristics of the actual amplifier to use them in many more applications...

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